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Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jan 7;172(1):ITC1-ITC16. doi: 10.7326/AITC202001070.

Celiac Disease.

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University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California (J.E.R., S.E.C.).


Gluten-related disorders, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), are increasingly reported worldwide. Celiac disease is caused by an immune-mediated reaction to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible persons. NCGS is largely a diagnosis of exclusion when other causes of symptoms have been ruled out. All patients with celiac disease should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist with expertise in celiac disease and a gastroenterologist who specializes in celiac disease and malabsorptive disorders, and they should remain on a strict gluten-free diet indefinitely. This article provides an overview of gluten- and wheat-related disorders.


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