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Prev Med. 2020 Jan 3:105972. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105972. [Epub ahead of print]

Prescription opioid misuse among adolescents and emerging adults in the United States: A scoping review.

Author information

1
University of Michigan Addiction Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America; University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America. Electronic address: erinbona@med.umich.edu.
2
University of Michigan Addiction Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America.
3
University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America; University of Michigan Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America.
4
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca, IL 60143, United States of America.
5
University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America; University of Michigan Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America; University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior & Health Education, 1415 Washington Heights 3790A SPH I, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America.
6
University of Michigan Addiction Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America; University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America.

Abstract

The U.S. opioid epidemic is a critical public health problem. As substance use and misuse typically begin in adolescence and emerging adulthood, there is a critical need for prevention efforts for this key developmental period to disrupt opioid misuse trajectories, reducing morbidity and mortality [e.g., overdose, development of opioid use disorders (OUD)]. This article describes the current state of research focusing on prescription opioid misuse (POM) among adolescents and emerging adults (A/EAs) in the U.S. Given the rapidly changing nature of the opioid epidemic, we applied PRISMA Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines to identify empirical articles published in the past 5 years (January 2013-September 2018) from nine databases examining POM among A/EAs (ages 10-25) in the U.S. Seventy-six articles met our inclusion criteria focusing on POM in the following areas: cross-sectional surveys (n = 60), longitudinal cohort studies (n = 5), objective, non-self-reported data sources (n = 9), and interventions (n = 2). Final charted data elements were organized by methodology and sample, with results tables describing design, sample, interventions (where applicable), outcomes, and limitations. Most studies focused on the epidemiology of POM and risk/protective factors, including demographics (e.g., sex, race), individual (e.g., substance use, mental health), and social (e.g., peer substance use). Despite annual national surveys conducted, longitudinal studies examining markers of initiation and escalation of prescription opioid misuse (e.g., repeated overdoses, time to misuse) are lacking. Importantly, few evidence-based prevention or early intervention programs were identified. Future research should examine longitudinal trajectories of POM, as well as adaptation and implementation of promising prevention approaches.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescents; Emerging adults; Opioid abuse; Opioid misuse; Prescription opioids; Scoping review

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