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ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Jan 5. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12565. [Epub ahead of print]

Diffuse right ventricular fibrosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and pulmonary hypertension.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
2
Feinberg Cardiovascular and Renal Research Institute, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
3
Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
5
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract

AIMS:

While right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis in co-morbid pulmonary hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF), the mechanisms driving RV dysfunction are unclear. We evaluated the extent and clinical correlates of diffuse RV myocardial fibrosis in PH-HFpEF, as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived extracellular volume (ECV).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We prospectively enrolled participants with PH-HFpEF (n = 14), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; n = 13), and controls (n = 8). All participants underwent high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and case subjects (PH-HFpEF and PAH) additionally underwent right heart catheterization. T1 mapping was performed using high-resolution modified look-locker inversion recovery with a 1 × 1 mm2 in-plane resolution. RV free wall T1 values were quantified, and ECV was calculated. Participants with PH-HFpEF were older and carried higher rates of hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea than those with PAH. While RV ECV was similar between PH-HFpEF and PAH (33.1 ± 8.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.5%; P = 0.57), total pulmonary resistance was lower in PH-HFpEF compared with PAH [PH-HFpEF: 5.68 WU (4.70, 7.66 WU) vs. PAH: 8.59 WU (8.14, 12.57 WU); P = 0.01]. RV ECV in PH-HFpEF was associated with worse indices of RV structure (RV end-diastolic volume: r = 0.67, P = 0.01) and RV function (RV free wall strain: r = 0.59, P = 0.03) but was not associated with RV afterload (total pulmonary resistance: r = 0.08, P = 0.79). Conversely, there was a strong correlation between RV ECV and RV afterload in PAH (r = 0.57, P = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Diffuse RV fibrosis, as measured by ECV, is present in PH-HFpEF and is associated with adverse RV structural and functional remodelling but not degree of pulmonary vasculopathy. In PH-HFpEF, diffuse RV fibrosis may occur out of proportion to the degree of RV afterload.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiac magnetic resonance; Fibrosis; Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; Pulmonary hypertension; Right ventricle

PMID:
31903694
DOI:
10.1002/ehf2.12565
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