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Am J Vet Res. 1988 Oct;49(10):1681-7.

Serum and synovial fluid steady-state concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in horses with experimentally induced infectious arthritis.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523.


The tarsocrural joints of 11 horses were inoculated with 1.2 to 2.16 x 10(6) viable Staphylococcus aureus organisms susceptible to a trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMP-SDZ) combination with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.25 micrograms of TMP/ml and 4.75 micrograms of SDZ/ml. Antimicrobial treatment consisted of oral administration of a TMP-SDZ combination--30 mg/kg of body weight given once daily (group-1 horses) or 60 mg/kg given as 30 mg/kg every 12 hours (group-2 horses). Paired serum and synovial fluid samples were obtained before intra-articular inoculation with the S aureus, after inoculation with S aureus but before antimicrobial treatment, and after inoculation at various hourly intervals after oral administration of the TMP-SDZ combination. The TMP-SDZ combination was administered daily in the 2 dosages for 21 days. Samples were collected after day 3 of repetitive drug administration so that drug steady-state concentration would have been achieved. Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed for TMP and SDZ concentrations. Administration of the TMP-SDZ combination at a dosage of 30 mg/kg once daily was not effective in maintaining TMP or SDZ concentrations above the MIC of TMP-SDZ for the S aureus (0.25 and 4.75 micrograms/ml for TMP and SDZ, respectively) in the infected synovial fluid or in maintaining adequate TMP concentration in the serum. The alternative use of the TMP-SDZ combination at a dosage of 60 mg/kg given as 30 mg/kg every 12 hours was effective in maintaining serum and synovial fluid concentrations of TMP and SDZ that were greater than the MIC for the infective organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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