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J Hered. 2020 Jan 3. pii: esz071. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esz071. [Epub ahead of print]

Patterns of Genomic Divergence and Signals of Selection in Sympatric and Allopatric Northeastern Pacific and Sea of Cortez Populations of the Sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii) and Longjaw Mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis).

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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, Long Marine Laboratory, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA.
Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.
Center for Comparative Genomics, California Academy of Sciences, Dr. San Francisco, CA.


Studying how isolation can impact population divergence and adaptation in co-distributed species can bring us closer to understanding how landscapes affect biodiversity. The Sargo, Anisotremus davidsonii (Haemulidae), and the Longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis (Gobiidae), offer a notable framework to study such mechanisms as their Pacific populations cross phylogeographic breaks at Point Conception, California, United States, and Punta Eugenia, Mexico, and are separated to those in the Sea of Cortez by the Baja California peninsula. Here, thousands of loci are genotyped from 48 Sargos and 73 mudsuckers using RADseq to characterize overall genomic divergence, and search for common patterns of putatively neutral and non-neutral structure based on outlier loci among populations with hypothesized different levels of isolation. We further search for parallels between population divergence and the total proportion of outliers, outlier FST distribution, and the proportion of outliers matching coding regions in GenBank. Statistically significant differentiation is seen across Point Conception in mudsucker (FST = 0.15), Punta Eugenia in Sargo (FST = 0.02), and on either side of the Baja California peninsula in both species (FST = 0.11 and 0.23, in Sargo and mudsucker, respectively). Each species shows structure using neutral and non-neutral loci. Finally, higher population divergence yields a more even distribution of outliers along their differentiation range but does not always translate into higher outlier proportions or higher rates in which outliers are matched to coding regions. If repeated in similar systems, observed genomic patterns might reveal speciation signatures in diverse networks of population isolation.


Baja California; adaptive evolution; differential selection; ecological divergence; incipient speciation; peripheral populations


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