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Lung India. 2020 Jan-Feb;37(1):37-44. doi: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_138_19.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle aspiration/fine-needle biopsy in diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy - A boon.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.



Evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLA) is a great diagnostic challenge considering the myriad of causes. In recent years, the role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been greatly extended in evaluation of MLA due to its safety, reliability, and accuracy. The present study details the role of EUS-guided-fine-needle aspiration/fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNA/FNB) in MLA of unknown origin.


Seventy-two patients (34 men) with MLA of unknown etiology were studied. Mediastinum was evaluated with linear echoendoscope and FNA/FNB was performed with 22-G needle and sent for cytology, histopathological, and mycobacterial growth indicator tube/GeneXpert evaluation. EUS-FNA/FNB diagnosis was based on cytology reporting by pathologists. Patients tolerated the procedure, and insertion of needle into the lesion was always successful without any complications.


EUS-FNA/FNB established a tissue diagnosis in 66/72 patients in first sitting, while six patients underwent repeat procedure. EUS-FNA diagnoses (after second sitting) were tuberculous lymphadenitis in 45/72 (62.5%), metastatic lymph nodes 12/72 (16.7%), reactive lymphadenopathy 6/72 (8.3%), sarcoidosis 4/72 (5.6%), and lymphoma 2/72 (2.8%), while it was nondiagnostic in 3/72 (4.1%) patients. Final diagnosis was based on combined clinical presentation, EUS-FNA/FNB result and clinicoradiological response to treatment on long-term follow-up of 6 months.


EUS echo features along with EUS-FNA/FNB can diagnose MLA and surgical biopsy can be avoided.


Endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle aspiration/fine needle biopsy; mediastinal lymphadenopathy; tuberculous lymphadenitis

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