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Lung India. 2020 Jan-Feb;37(1):8-12. doi: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_145_19.

Clinical profile and course of children with postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans from a tertiary care hospital.

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1
Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Background:

Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease with scanty information in literature on etiology, clinical profile, treatment, and outcome.

Objective:

The objective of the study is to describe the clinical profile and course of children diagnosed with PIBO.

Methods:

A chart review of children below 18 years of age diagnosed as PIBO over the past 9 years was carried out. Details of clinical profile, laboratory investigations, imaging, treatment received, and outcome were recorded.

Results:

Eight children (boys 4) with PIBO were identified. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age at the first episode of acute severe bronchiolitis such as illness and diagnosis of PIBO was 15 (6, 23.5) and 30 (16.5, 60) months, respectively, indicating a delay in diagnosis. The most common symptoms were recurrent episodes of cough (100%), fast breathing (100%), wheezing (87.5%), and fever (62.5%). Median (IQR) number of hospitalizations and episodes of antibiotic use prior to diagnosis were 2.5 (2, 5.5) and 2 (2, 4), respectively. Three (37.5%) children received mechanical ventilation during previous hospitalizations. Chest computed tomography revealed mosaic attenuation in 8 (100%), ground-glass opacities in 2 (25%), and bronchial wall thickening in 2 (25%). After diagnosis, 7 received oral steroids, 7 received hydroxychloroquine, 5 received azithromycin, and 2 received azathioprine. The median (IQR) duration of follow-up (n = 6) was 6 (1.5, 9.5) months. Median (IQR) number of pulmonary exacerbations in follow-up was 2 (1, 5).

Conclusion:

PIBO is still an under-recognized entity with substantial delay in diagnosis and unnecessary use of antibiotics. Clinical course with imaging findings may help to diagnose and manage this entity.

KEYWORDS:

Children; mosaic attenuation; postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans; steroids

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