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J Minim Access Surg. 2020 Jan-Mar;16(1):1-4. doi: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_84_19.

Outcomes of laparoscopic incarcerated inguinal hernia repair in children.

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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Chelsea Children's Hospital, Chelsea and Westminster NHS Fdn Trust, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.



Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) is gaining widespread acceptance, but its role in the management of incarcerated cases is not well outlined. This review analyses the outcomes of laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

Patients and Methods:

Literature was searched on PubMed® using terms 'laparoscopic', 'incarcerated', 'inguinal', 'hernia' and 'children'. Age, sex, side, sac content, operative technique, follow-up period, complication and recurrence rate were analysed.


Fifteen articles with 689 paediatric incarcerated inguinal hernias were identified between 1998 and 2018. Median age of patients was 22.4 months (2 weeks-16 years; M:F = 2.2:1). Side was mentioned in n = 576: n = 398 (69.1%) right and n = 178 (30.9%) left. In n = 355 (51.5%) manual reduction and delayed surgery (MRDS), in n = 34 (4.9%) manual reduction in general anaesthesia (MRGA) followed by emergency LHR and in n = 300 (43.5%) intraoperative reduction (IOR) was necessary. Incarcerated contents were documented in n = 68: intestine n = 36 (52.9%), ovary n = 14 (20.6%), omentum n = 11 (16.2%), appendix n = 5 (7.4%) and Meckel's diverticulum n = 2 (2.9%). Among the n = 18 girls in IOR group, n = 14 (77.8%) had ovaries incarcerated. For LHR, the hook method was used in 376 (54.6%) and purse-string suture in 313 (45.4%), with two conversions in IOR group. Mean followup was 15 months (3-80 months), with one (0.15%) testicular atrophy, and 4 (0.58%) recurrences in MRDS and 1 (0.15%) in IOR. All five cases were closed with pursestring technique. Total recurrence rate was 0.73%; significantly higher (P = 0.014) with pursestring (n = 5, 1.6%) than with the hook (none).


Hook and purse-string methods are equally popular in LHR for paediatric incarcerated hernias, with 50% hernia reductions possible at the time of surgery. Recurrence rate is low and comparable with non-incarcerated hernias; however, it is significantly higher in purse-string method than hook technique.


Incarceration; inguinal hernia; laparoscopic; paediatric; repair

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