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Crit Care. 2020 Jan 2;24(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13054-019-2683-3.

0.9% saline versus Plasma-Lyte as initial fluid in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (SPinK trial): a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
2
Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India. mjshree@hotmail.com.
3
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
4
Division of Pediatric Allergy & Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication encountered during the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Plasma-Lyte with lower chloride concentration than saline has been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of AKI in adults with septic shock. No study has compared this in DKA.

METHODS:

This double-blind, parallel-arm, investigator-initiated, randomized controlled trial compared 0.9% saline with Plasma-Lyte-A as initial fluid in pediatric DKA. The study was done in a tertiary care, teaching, and referral hospital in India in children (> 1 month-12 years) with DKA as defined by ISPAD. Children with cerebral edema or known chronic kidney/liver disease or who had received pre-referral fluids and/or insulin were excluded. Sixty-six children were randomized to receive either Plasma-Lyte (n = 34) or 0.9% saline (n = 32).

MAIN OUTCOMES:

Primary outcome was incidence of new or progressive AKI, defined as a composite outcome of change in creatinine (defined by KDIGO), estimated creatinine clearance (defined by p-RIFLE), and NGAL levels. The secondary outcomes were resolution of AKI, time to resolution of DKA (pH > 7.3, bicarbonate> 15 mEq/L & normal sensorium), change in chloride, pH and bicarbonate levels, proportion of in-hospital all-cause mortality, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and length of ICU and hospital stay.

RESULTS:

Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The incidence of new or progressive AKI was similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 13 (38.2%) versus 0.9% saline 15 (46.9%); adjusted OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.43-3.43, p = 0.70]. The median (IQR) time to resolution of DKA in Plasma-Lyte-A and 0.9% saline were 14.5 (12 to 20) and 16 (8 to 20) h respectively. Time to resolution of AKI was similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 22.1 versus 0.9% saline 18.8 h (adjusted HR 1.72; 95% CI 0.83-3.57; p = 0.14)]. Length of hospital stay was also similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 9 (8 to 12) versus 0.9% saline 10 (8.25 to 11) days; p = 0.39].

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of new or progressive AKI and resolution of AKI were similar in both groups. Plasma-Lyte-A was similar to 0.9% Saline in time to resolution of DKA, need for RRT, mortality, and lengths of PICU and hospital stay.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Clinical trial registry of India, CTRI/2018/05/014042 (ctri.nic.in) (Retrospectively registered).

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Fluids; Intensive care; Ketoacidosis; Kidney injury; Pediatric; Saline

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