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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Feb 7;15(2):238-246. doi: 10.2215/CJN.06710619. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Mediterranean Style Diet and Kidney Function Loss in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; and a.w.gomes.neto@umcg.nl.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; and.
3
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Despite improvement of short-term graft survival over recent years, long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation has not improved. Studies in the general population suggest the Mediterranean diet benefits kidney function preservation. We investigated whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with kidney outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:

We included 632 adult kidney transplant recipients with a functioning graft for ≥1 year. Dietary intake was inquired using a 177-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a nine-point Mediterranean Diet Score. Primary end point of the study was graft failure and secondary end points included kidney function decline (doubling of serum creatinine or graft failure) and graft loss (graft failure or death with a functioning graft). Cox regression analyses were used to prospectively study the associations of the Mediterranean Diet Score with study end points.

RESULTS:

During median follow-up of 5.4 (interquartile range, 4.9-6.0) years, 76 participants developed graft failure, 119 developed kidney function decline, and 181 developed graft loss. The Mediterranean Diet Score was inversely associated with all study end points (graft failure: hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.50 to 0.91; kidney function decline: HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.85; and graft loss: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.88 per two-point increase in Mediterranean Diet Score) independent of potential confounders. We identified 24-hour urinary protein excretion and time since transplantation to be an effect modifier, with stronger inverse associations between the Mediterranean Diet Score and kidney outcomes observed in participants with higher urinary protein excretion and participants transplanted more recently.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better kidney function outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

KEYWORDS:

Mediterranean diet; adult; chronic graft deterioration; creatinine; death; follow-up studies; graft survival; humans; kidney; kidney transplantation; nutrition; proteinuria; regression analysis; renal insufficiency; renal transplantation; surveys and questionnaires; transplant; transplants

PMID:
31896540
DOI:
10.2215/CJN.06710619

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