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Popul Health Manag. 2020 Jan 2. doi: 10.1089/pop.2019.0206. [Epub ahead of print]

Outreach and Connection to Care for Chronic Kidney Disease in a Workplace Wellness Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

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Quest Diagnostics, San Juan Capistrano, California.


Because chronic kidney disease (CKD) is underdiagnosed, many patients do not receive care that could slow or prevent progression. Potential CKD patients can be identified during employee wellness events and referred into care by a CKD outreach program. This study assessed the health and economic benefits associated with a CKD outreach program. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted for a cohort of patients at risk for CKD under 2 scenarios: wellness events with a CKD outreach program and wellness events without outreach. The outreach program identified potential CKD patients based on estimated glomerular filtration rates. Health outcomes and total cost to payers were estimated with Markov models using 1-year cycles. Because outreach could be offered to either patients with diabetes or to all potential CKD patients, these groups were modeled separately. The authors assumed 40% percent of potential CKD patients accepted the invitation to participate in the CKD outreach program. Model parameters were taken from peer-reviewed literature. The study was conducted from the perspective of self-insured employers over a 5-year time horizon. The study found that the CKD outreach program resulted in a gain of 2.3 quality-adjusted life-years and saved $500,211 when 1000 potential CKD patients with diabetes were invited. When potential CKD patients were invited without regard for diabetes status, 0.8 quality-adjusted life-years were gained at a cost savings of $34,161. The authors concluded that CKD outreach programs can improve health outcomes for patients with CKD and save costs for payers.


Markov modeling; chronic kidney disease; cost-effectiveness analysis


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