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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec 27;17(1). pii: E207. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17010207.

Long-Term Effectiveness of Liraglutide for Weight Management and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes.

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Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Græcia" of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.
Complex Operative Structure Endocrinology-Diabetology, Hospital Pugliese-Ciaccio, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Biruni University, 34010 Istanbul, Turkey.


Background: Liraglutide is the first glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) based on the human GLP-1 sequence, with potential weight loss benefits, approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus. Herein, we aimed to assess the 5-year effectiveness of Liraglutide in the management of weight and glycometabolic control in a Southern Italian cohort of overweight/obese T2D patients, who were naïve to GLP-1 RAs. Patients and Methods: Forty overweight or obese patients treated with Liraglutide at doses up to 1.8 mg/day, in combination with one or more oral antidiabetic agents, were retrospectively assessed at baseline, during, and after 60 months of continuous therapy. Results: After 5 years of Liraglutide treatment, body weight decreased from 92.1 ± 20.5 kg to 87.3 ± 20.0 Kg (p < 0.001), with a mean reduction of 5.0 ± 7.0 Kg and a body mass index (BMI) decrement of -2.0 ± 3.1 Kg/m2. On Spearman's univariate analysis, change in body weight was correlated with female gender and baseline BMI. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) decreased from 7.9 ± 0.9% at baseline to 7.0 ± 0.7% at the end of the study period (p < 0.001), followed by a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose. No significant differences emerged in other biochemical parameters, despite a trend toward improvement in lipid profile. Notwithstanding encouraging effects on several markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), increments in the 5- and 10-year risk for the first atherosclerotic cardiovascular event were documented, as four incident cases of myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Prolonging treatment with Liraglutide can lead to durable benefits in relation to weight and glycemic control, with a greater impact on women. These results extend and corroborate previous observations, suggesting that gender per se may modulate the response to Liraglutide. Despite favorable effects on some established CVD risks factors, the long-term role of Liraglutide in primary prevention of CVD in patients with T2D remains controversial.


gender difference; liraglutide; type 2 diabetes; weight management

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