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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2020 Jan 24. doi: 10.1089/ars.2019.7987. [Epub ahead of print]

Oxidative Stress and Cancer Development: Are Noncoding RNAs the Missing Links?

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Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Mangaluru, India.
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Division of Molecular Genetics and Cancer, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Mangaluru, India.


Significance: It is now clear that genetic changes underlie the basis of cancer, and alterations in functions of multiple genes are responsible for the process of tumorigenesis. Besides the classical genes that are usually implicated in cancer, the role of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as independent entitites has also been investigated. Recent Advances: The microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), two main classes of ncRNAs, are known to regulate many aspects of tumor development. ROS, generated during oxidative stress and pathological conditions, are known to regulate every step of tumor development. Conversely, oxidative stress and ROS producing agents can suppress tumor development. The malignant cells normally produce high levels of ROS compared with normal cells. The interaction between ROS and ncRNAs regulates the expression of multiple genes and pathways implicated in cancer, suggesting a unique mechanistic relationship among ncRNA-ROS-cancer. The mechanistic relationship has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma, glioma, and malignancies of blood, breast, colorectum, esophagus, kidney, lung, mouth, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and stomach. The ncRNA-ROS regulate several cancer-related cell signaling pathways, namely, protein kinase B (AKT), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), p53, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and wingless-related integration site (Wnt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β). Critical Issues: To date, most of the reports about ncRNA-oxidative stress-carcinogenesis relationships are based on cell lines. The mechanistic basis for this relationship has not been completely elucidated. Future Directions: Attempts should be made to explore the association of lncRNAs with ROS. The significance of the ncRNA-oxidative stress-carcinogenesis interplay should also be explored through studies in animal models. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.


carcinogenesis; lncRNA; miRNA; reactive oxygen species; signaling pathway


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