Send to

Choose Destination
Heliyon. 2019 Dec 18;5(12):e03035. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03035. eCollection 2019 Dec.

Almond-supplemented diet improves sexual functions beyond Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition in diabetic male rats.

Author information

Functional Foods and Nutraceutical Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, 340001, Nigeria.


Hyperglycemia, an important feature of diabetes, can cause oxidative stress, which is associated with varieties of diabetic complications including erectile dysfunction. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of almond-supplemented diet on some biochemical indices relevant to erection in diabetic male rats. Forty-two male rats were divided into two groups: A (n = 6) and B (n = 36). Diabetes was induced in Group B via injection of a single dose of STZ (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and confirmed 72 h after induction. Diabetic rats (blood glucose ≥250 mg/dL) were subsequently divided into six groups (n = 6). Fourteen days after confirmation of diabetes, rats were fed with diets containing almond drupe and seeds (10 and 20% inclusion) for fourteen days. The effects of the diets on blood glucose, sexual behavior, sexual hormones, phosphodiesterase-5 activity, nitric oxide, H2S, and AGEs levels were evaluated. Significant increase in blood glucose level, phosphodiesterase-5 activity, and glycated hemoglobin was observed in diabetic rats. Furthermore, diabetes caused a significant decrease in nitric oxide, H2S, sexual hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) levels, and sexual behavioral indices. However, treatment with diets supplemented with almond drupe and seeds significantly reversed these effects in diabetic rats. Findings in this study revealed that almond-supplemented diets enhance some important biomarkers relevant to erection in diabetic rats. Thus, dietary inclusion of almond (drupe and seeds) could serve as a cheap and readily available nutraceutical in the management of erectile dysfunction associated with diabetes.


Almond-supplemented diet; Biochemistry; Biological sciences; Diet; Metabolite; Pathophysiology; Phosphodiesterase-5; Sexual behavior; Sexual hormones; Toxicology

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center