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Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2019 Nov;8(4):266-270. doi: 10.5582/irdr.2019.01089.

Malignant transformation of hepatic adenoma complicated by rupture and hemorrhage: An extremely rare clinical entity.

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Department of Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Canada.
Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Canada.


Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are rare benign tumors of the liver and comprise 2% of all liver tumors with an annual incidence of 3-4/100,000 per year in Europe and North America. These tumors may be clinically silent or present with abdominal pain. Although rare, the most important complications associated with this tumor is haemorrhage and malignant transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma. The reported risk of malignant transformation is believed to be 4.2%. We present an extremely rare case report of a young woman on the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) with malignant transformation of a hepatic adenoma complicated additionally by tumor rupture and intraperitoneal bleed. This article therefore highlights the need to carefully evaluate any liver lesion in a young female on the OCP to be a possible adenoma and if confirmed to be so, to consider the potential risks associated with it as well as the need for follow-up imaging in order to avoid life threatening complications.


Hepatic adenoma; hemorrhage; hepatocellular carcinoma; inflammatory adenoma; malignant transformation; oral contraceptive pill

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