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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 Dec 24;97:540-553. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.12.074. [Epub ahead of print]

Optimal dietary curcumin improved growth performance, and modulated innate immunity, antioxidant capacity and related genes expression of NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

Author information

1
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Aquatic Resources Conservation and Development, College of Life Sciences, Huzhou University, Huzhou, 313000, China; Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou University, Huzhou, 313000, China; Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, 214081, China. Electronic address: mingjh686@zjhu.edu.cn.
2
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Aquatic Resources Conservation and Development, College of Life Sciences, Huzhou University, Huzhou, 313000, China; Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou University, Huzhou, 313000, China. Electronic address: yjy@zjhu.edu.cn.
3
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Aquatic Resources Conservation and Development, College of Life Sciences, Huzhou University, Huzhou, 313000, China.
4
Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, 214081, China.
5
Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, 214081, China. Electronic address: xup@ffrc.cn.

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of dietary curcumin on growth performance, non-specific immunity, antioxidant capacity and related genes expression of NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 525 juvenile grass carps with mean initial body weight of (5.30 ± 0.10) g were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates each, fed five diets containing graded levels of curcumin (0, 196.11, 393.67, 591.46 and 788.52 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. After feeding trial, fifteen fish per tank were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and the mortalities were recorded for 7 days. The results showed that optimal dietary curcumin (393.67 mg/kg diet) improved the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of juvenile grass carp, reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the mortalities after challenge (P < 0.05). Moreover, optimal dietary curcumin increased the activities of lysozyme (LYZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP), and complement 3 (C3) and C4 levels, decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum of grass carp after injection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, optimal dietary curcumin up-regulated the mRNA levels of LYZ, C3 and antimicrobial peptides [hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2), β-defensin], and anti-inflammatory cytokines of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), whereas down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, and nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ and IKKγ) mRNA levels in the liver and blood of grass carp after injection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). In addition, optimal dietary curcumin increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver of grass carp after injection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, optimal dietary curcumin up-regulated the mRNA levels of these antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), whereas down-regulated Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1a and Keap 1b mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the liver and blood of grass carp after injection with A. hydrophila. Thus, optimal dietary curcumin supplementation could promote growth of juvenile grass carp, reduce FCR, and enhance disease resistance, innate immunity and antioxidant capacity of fish, attenuating inflammatory response. However, dietary excessive curcumin had negative effect on fish. Based on second-order regression analysis between dietary curcumin contents and weight gain, the optimum requirement of dietary curcumin in juvenile grass carp was determined to be 438.20 mg/kg diet.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant capacity; Ctenopharyngodon idella; Curcumin; Gene expression; Innate immunity; NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways

PMID:
31881329
DOI:
10.1016/j.fsi.2019.12.074

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