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Curr Drug Deliv. 2019 Dec 26. doi: 10.2174/1567201817666191227095019. [Epub ahead of print]

Development of Atovaquone Nanosuspension: Quality by Design Approach.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019. India.



The present study reports the use of MicrofluidizerTM technology to form a stable nanosuspension of atovaquone (ATQ) using quality by design (QbD) approach.


The patient-centric quality target product profile and critical quality attributes (CQAs) were identified. A Box-Behnken design was employed for optimization of dependent variables while CQAs like particle size and PDI were evaluated as response variables. Effective optimization of ATQ nanosuspension preparation using Microfluidizer processor as a novel green technology was achieved using QbD approach.


The prepared nanosuspension had a mean particle size of 865 nm ± 5%, PDI of 0.261 ± 3%, and zeta potential of -1.79 ± 5 mV. The characterization of the prepared nanosuspension by SEM, DSC, and XRD revealed its nano-crystalline nature where as FTIR spectroscopic analysis confirmed the absence of any physicochemical interaction because of process parameters between the drug and excipients.


In vitro dissolution studies of the nanosuspension using USP-IV exhibited 100% cumulative drug release over 90 minutes, which is significantly better than that of ATQ pure API. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed bioequivalence of ATQ nanosuspensions by Microfluidizer homogenization process to the marketed formulation [1].


Atovaquone; Bioavailability; Dissolution; Microfluidizer technology; Pneumonia; QbD

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