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Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2019 Oct-Dec;9(4):187-190. doi: 10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_49_18. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Initial choice of antibiotic in recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A retrospective study.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India.
2
Department of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Abstract

Context:

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a commonly encountered infection seen in the setting of ascites secondary to advanced liver disease. Recurrence of SBP is common and is associated with high mortality. This study was designed to recognize a better initial choice of antibiotic in case of recurrent SBP - a third-generation cephalosporin or a carbapenem.

Aims:

This study aims to determine a better initial choice of antibiotic in case of recurrent SBP and to compare the all-cause mortality among two different groups of patients treated with a third-generation cephalosporin and a carbapenem.

Settings and Design:

This study was conducted among fifty patients presenting with recurrent SBP visiting the emergency department (ED) at a tertiary care center and who were subsequently admitted in a gastroenterology intensive care unit, during a period of 1 year.

Subjects and Methods:

This is a retrospective, observational study conducted among patients with chronic liver disease and diagnosed with recurrent SBP visiting the ED at a tertiary care center in South India treated with either of two classes of antibiotics - third-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems, and their outcomes were compared. Recurrence is defined as an episode of SBP after resolution of the first index case of SBP within 1 year.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 23.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). All categorical variables were represented as percentages, and all continuous variables were represented as mean ± standard deviation. To test the statistical significance of the association of categorical variables with the outcome, Chi-square test was used. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results:

A total of fifty patients with recurrent SBP were included in the study, of which 44 (88%) patients were male and 6 patients were female (12%). Twenty-nine (58%) patients survived and 21 (42%) patients expired within 28 days. Twenty-seven (54%) patients were treated with third-generation cephalosporins and 23 (46%) were treated with carbapenems. It was observed that mortality was statistically significantly lower among patients treated with carbapenem (P = 0.001). The incidence of acute kidney injury was also lower among patients treated with a carbapenem than patients treated with a third-generation cephalosporin (40.7% vs. 59.25%, respectively).

Conclusions:

Initiation of a carbapenem significantly reduced the all-cause mortality when compared to a third-generation cephalosporin as an initial antibiotic of choice in recurrent SBP.

KEYWORDS:

Carbapenem; initial antibiotic; recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; third-generation cephalosporin

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