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Ind Psychiatry J. 2019 Jan-Jun;28(1):58-62. doi: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_74_19. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Relation between temperament dimensions and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

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Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.
Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



The relation between temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complex and understood in different ways, with the most common being risk model and spectrum model. However, the evidence is mixed and emerging.


To assess the relationship between ADHD symptoms and temperament dimensions in a clinical sample of school-aged children.


A retrospective assessment of temperament of 50 children with ADHD was done on temperament measurement schedule. The mean and standard deviation was computed for continuous variables and frequency and percentage for discontinuous variables and correlation and regression analysis was computed.


Children with ADHD were high on activity level, intensity of reaction, approach, and distractibility and low on persistence and threshold of responsiveness. The strength of significant correlations between temperamental dimensions and ADHD symptoms (P < 0.05) ranged from 0.32 to 0.41. On regression analysis, temperament could explain 22% variance of inattention subscale and around 20% variance in hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale.


This moderate level of relation suggests that though certain temperamental traits are related to symptoms of ADHD, temperament and ADHD are phenotypically separate constructs, further favoring the risk model.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; children; temperament

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