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Curr Drug Metab. 2019 Dec 25. doi: 10.2174/1389200221666191226102231. [Epub ahead of print]

Neuroblastoma: An updated review on biology and treatment.

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Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa-516003, A.P., India.



Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second leading extracranial solid tumors of early childhood and clinically characterized by the presence of round, small, monomorphic cells with excess nuclear pigmentation (hyperchromasia). Owing to a lack of definitive treatment against NB and less survival rate in high-risk patients, there is an urgent requirement to understand molecular mechanisms associated with NB in a better way, which in turn can be utilized for developing drugs towards the treatment of NB in human.


In this review, an approach was adopted to understand major risk factors, pathophysiology, the molecular mechanism associated with NB, and various therapeutic agents that can serve as drugs towards the treatment of NB in humans.


Numerous genetic (e.g., MYCN amplification), perinatal, and gestational factors are responsible for developing NB. However, no definite environmental or parental exposures responsible for causing NB have been confirmed to date. Though intensive multimodal treatment approaches, namely, chemotherapy, surgery & radiation, may help in improving the survival rate in children, these approaches have several side effects and do not work efficiently in high-risk patients. However, recent studies suggested that numerous phytochemicals, namely, vincristine, and matrine have a minimal side effect in the human body and may serve as a therapeutic drug during the treatment of NB. Most of these phytochemicals work in a dose-dependent manner and hence must be prescribed very cautiously. The information discussed in the present review will be useful in the drug discovery process as well as treatment and prevention on NB in humans.


Chemotherapy; Drugs; Molecular mechanisms; Neurblastoma; Pathophysiology; Phytochemicals

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