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Nutr Rev. 2019 Dec 26. pii: nuz092. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz092. [Epub ahead of print]

Nutritional interventions for autism spectrum disorder.

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E. Karhu, R. Zukerman, J. Mittal, R. Mittal, and A.A. Eshraghi are with the Department of Otolaryngology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. R.S. Eshraghi is with the Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. R.C. Deth, A.M. Castejon, and M. Trivedi are with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. A.A. Eshraghi is with the Department of Neurological Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. With no cure for the disorder, treatments commonly center around speech and behavioral therapies to improve the characteristic social, behavioral, and communicative symptoms of ASD. Gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly encountered comorbidities that are thought to be not only another symptom of ASD but to also play an active role in modulating the expression of social and behavioral symptoms. Therefore, nutritional interventions are used by a majority of those with ASD both with and without clinical supervision to alleviate gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. Despite a considerable interest in dietary interventions, no consensus exists regarding optimal nutritional therapy. Thus, patients and physicians are left to choose from a myriad of dietary protocols. This review, summarizes the state of the current clinical and experimental literature on nutritional interventions for ASD, including gluten-free and casein-free, ketogenic, and specific carbohydrate diets, as well as probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary supplements (vitamins‚ÄČA, C, B6, and B12; magnesium and folate).


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); casein-free diet; dietary supplements; gluten-free diet; ketogenic diet; polyunsaturated fatty acids; probiotics; specific carbohydrate diet


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