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J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2019 Dec 26:1932296819895567. doi: 10.1177/1932296819895567. [Epub ahead of print]

Health Care Provider Knowledge and Perceptions of FDA-Approved and Do-It-Yourself Automated Insulin Delivery.

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University of Utah College of Nursing, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.



Automated insulin delivery (AID) technology may reduce variability in blood glucose, resulting in lower risk for hypoglycemia and associated complications, and by extension improve quality of life. While clinical trials, research, and patient experience have consistently demonstrated the value of AID, this technology is still inaccessible to many patients. Patient-driven innovation has resulted in alternative do-it-yourself (DIY) solutions to available off-the-shelf AID devices.


This two-phase cross-sectional observational study addressed health care provider (HCP) perceptions of AID as well as the perceived need for, development of, and evaluation of an AID fact sheet comparing the most commonly used Federal Drug Administration approved AID and DIY AID devices.


Negative attitudes toward the use of DIY AID were low. The majority of HCPs saw their lack of knowledge about how DIY AID work to be the greatest barrier to answering patient questions about what is available (74.4%). Additionally, the majority of HCPs (64.5%) indicated they were either "likely" or "very likely" to use the fact sheet when answering patient questions about AID options.


Increased awareness and utilization of AID technology offer hope to further reduce the burden of diabetes, but there is a need to bridge the knowledge gap about DIY AID. A fact sheet provides a way to facilitate discussions of this emerging technology between HCPs and patients. Next steps could investigate additional ways to put needed information in the hands of HCPs.


automated insulin delivery; blood glucose; do-it-yourself; health care provider; hypoglycemia; patient-driven; type 1 diabetes


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