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Nature. 2020 Jan;577(7789):235-238. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1872-1. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Mapping disparities in education across low- and middle-income countries.

Collaborators (314)

Graetz N, Woyczynski L, Wilson KF, Hall JB, Abate KH, Abd-Allah F, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Afshari M, Ajumobi O, Akinyemiju T, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Rabanal JEA, Alijanzadeh M, Alipour V, Altirkawi K, Amiresmaili M, Anber NH, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Arabloo J, Aremu O, Aryal KK, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Atique S, Ausloos M, Awasthi A, Quintanilla BPA, Azari S, Badawi A, Banoub JAM, Barker-Collo SL, Barnett A, Bedi N, Bennett DA, Bhattacharjee NV, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Britton G, Burstein R, Butt ZA, Cárdenas R, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castro F, Cerin E, Chang JC, Collison ML, Cooper C, Cork MA, Daoud F, Das Gupta R, Weaver ND, De Neve JW, Deribe K, Desalegn BB, Deshpande A, Desta M, Dhimal M, Diaz D, Dinberu MT, Djalalinia S, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, Durães AR, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Earl L, Kalan ME, El-Khatib Z, Eshrati B, Faramarzi M, Fareed M, Faro A, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes E, Filip I, Fischer F, Fukumoto T, García JA, Gill PS, Gill TK, Gona PN, Gopalani SV, Grada A, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta V, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hasan M, Hassen HY, Hendrie D, Henok A, Henry NJ, Prado BH, Herteliu C, Hole MK, Hossain N, Hosseinzadeh M, Hu G, Ilesanmi OS, Irvani SSN, Islam SMS, Izadi N, Jakovljevic M, Jha RP, Ji JS, Jonas JB, Shushtari ZJ, Jozwiak JJ, Kanchan T, Kasaeian A, Karyani AK, Keiyoro PN, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khan EA, Khater MM, Kiadaliri AA, Kiirithio DN, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinyoki DK, Kisa A, Kosen S, Koyanagi A, Krishan K, Defo BK, Kumar M, Kumar P, Lami FH, Lee PH, Levine AJ, Li S, Liao Y, Lim LL, Listl S, Lopez JCF, Majdan M, Majdzadeh R, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Mansournia MA, Martins-Melo FR, Masaka A, Massenburg BB, Mayala BK, Mehta KM, Mendoza W, Mensah GA, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Miller TR, Mini GK, Mirrakhimov EM, Moazen B, Mohammad DK, Darwesh AM, Mohammed S, Mohebi F, Mokdad AH, Monasta L, Moodley Y, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moraga P, Morawska L, Morrison SD, Mosser JF, Mousavi SM, Murray CJL, Mustafa G, Nahvijou A, Najafi F, Nangia V, Ndwandwe DE, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Ngunjiri JW, Nguyen CT, Nguyen LH, Ningrum DNA, Noubiap JJ, Shiadeh MN, Nyasulu PS, Ogbo FA, Olagunju AT, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Onwujekwe OE, Ortega-Altamirano DDV, Ortiz-Panozo E, Øverland S, P A M, Pana A, Panda-Jonas S, Pati S, Patton GC, Perico N, Pigott DM, Pirsaheb M, Postma MJ, Pourshams A, Prakash S, Puri P, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Rahim F, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman MHU, Rajati F, Ranabhat CL, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Reiner RC Jr, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMN, Rezaei S, Rezapour A, Rios-González C, Roever L, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Rostami A, Rubagotti E, Sadat N, Sadeghi E, Safari Y, Sagar R, Salam N, Salamati P, Salimi Y, Salimzadeh H, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Santric Milicevic MM, Sartorius B, Sathian B, Sawant AR, Schaeffer LE, Schipp MF, Schwebel DC, Senbeta AM, Sepanlou SG, Shaikh MA, Shams-Beyranvand M, Shamsizadeh M, Sharafi K, Sharma R, She J, Sheikh A, Shigematsu M, Siabani S, Silveira DGA, Singh JA, Sinha DN, Skirbekk V, Sligar A, Sobaih BH, Soofi M, Soriano JB, Soyiri IN, Sreeramareddy CT, Sudaryanto A, Babale Sufiyan M, Sutradhar I, Sylaja PN, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tadesse BT, Temsah MH, Terkawi AS, Tessema B, Tessema ZT, Thankappan KR, Topor-Madry R, Tovani-Palone MR, Tran BX, Car LT, Ullah I, Uthman OA, Valdez PR, Veisani Y, Violante FS, Vlassov V, Vollmer S, Thu Vu G, Waheed Y, Wang YP, Wilkinson JC, Winkler AS, Wolfe CDA, Yamada T, Yeshaneh A, Yip P, Yisma E, Yonemoto N, Younis MZ, Yousefifard M, Yu C, Bin Zaman S, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Zodpey S, Gakidou E, Hay SI.

Abstract

Educational attainment is an important social determinant of maternal, newborn, and child health1-3. As a tool for promoting gender equity, it has gained increasing traction in popular media, international aid strategies, and global agenda-setting4-6. The global health agenda is increasingly focused on evidence of precision public health, which illustrates the subnational distribution of disease and illness7,8; however, an agenda focused on future equity must integrate comparable evidence on the distribution of social determinants of health9-11. Here we expand on the available precision SDG evidence by estimating the subnational distribution of educational attainment, including the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling, across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017. Previous analyses have focused on geographical disparities in average attainment across Africa or for specific countries, but-to our knowledge-no analysis has examined the subnational proportions of individuals who completed specific levels of education across all low- and middle-income countries12-14. By geolocating subnational data for more than 184 million person-years across 528 data sources, we precisely identify inequalities across geography as well as within populations.

PMID:
31875853
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1872-1

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