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Hypertens Pregnancy. 2019 Dec 25:1-8. doi: 10.1080/10641955.2019.1704002. [Epub ahead of print]

Preeclampsia in women with pregestational diabetes - a cohort study.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
2
Gynecology and Obstetrics Unit, Hospital de ClĂ­nicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
3
Biostatics Unit, HCPA, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
4
Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, HCPA, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate risk factors for preeclampsia (PE) in women with pregestational diabetes.Methods: Retrospective cohort study of women with pregestational diabetes cared for at a specialized prenatal care facility. Maternal characteristics at booking and during pregnancy were studied for their association with preeclampsia. Multivariable models were tested using Poisson regression with robust estimates; results were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).Results: Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 62 of 206 women (30%, 95% CI 24-37%). Previous chronic hypertension was found in 53 subjects (26%; 95% CI 20-32%), of whom 41 (77%, 95% CI 64-88) were type 2 women. Type 1 diabetes, chronic hypertension, systolic blood pressure >124 mmHg at booking and gestational weight gain, either total or excessive for body mass index category, behaved as independent risk factors.Conclusions: In women with pregestational diabetes, some risk factors may predict PE, similar to those found in non-diabetic pregnant women. Two non-modifiable factors (type of diabetes and chronic hypertension) and two modifiable ones (systolic blood pressure levels and gestational weight gain) were found relevant in this cohort. A policy of close monitoring of blood pressure and weight gain, aiming adequate weight gain, may be added to current recommended measures. The high prevalence of PE in women with prepregnancy diabetes, especially those with initial pregnancy systolic blood pressure >124 mmHg, supports a policy of early institution of low dose aspirin. Further multicentric studies will help define the role of these risk factors as contributors to PE in pregestational diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Pregnancy in diabetics; blood pressure; hypertension; preeclampsia; pregnancy outcome; risk factors; weight gain

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