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J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2019 Dec 25:1932296819889641. doi: 10.1177/1932296819889641. [Epub ahead of print]

"Do It Yourself" (DIY)-Automated Insulin Delivery (AID) Systems: Current Status From a German Point of View.

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Science Consulting in Diabetes GmbH, Neuss, Germany.
Hannover Medical School, Dept. Medical Psychology, Hannover, Germany.


A group of dedicated people with a high affinity for technology and good understanding of how to treat their type 1 diabetes have developed systems that enable automated insulin delivery (AID). These persons build these AID systems only for themselves (do it yourself [DIY]) and the quality of glucose control achieved with DIY AID systems is impressively good. This overview presents the current status of this development from a German point of view. A high degree of efforts is required to start and maintain this type of therapy and the user must always remain aware of what she/he is doing in everyday life. One main obstacle is liability, because the medicinal products used by persons with diabetes for DIY AID systems are not approved for this indication. They must be regarded as experimental systems. As long as persons with diabetes build and use these systems for themselves and not for other people, they act at their own risk. If a person with diabetes expresses interest in such a system or is already using it, the diabetologist should inform him about the improper use of the medical devices and about the associated risks. The physician should document this information accordingly.


artificial pancreas; automated insulin delivery; closed loop; insulin therapy


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