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Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 24;9(1):19739. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56071-0.

Close-up observations on the spawning behavior of a captive Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus).

Author information

1
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 041-8611, Japan. yamaj@fish.hokudai.ac.jp.
2
Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, Mononobe-otsu 200, Nankoku, Kochi, 783-8502, Japan.
3
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 041-8611, Japan.
4
Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 041-8611, Japan.
5
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 25-259 Shimomekurakubo, Samemachi, Hachinohe, Aomori, 031-0841, Japan.
6
Graduate School of Environmental Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 041-8611, Japan.
7
Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Fishery, Izu Branch, 251-1 Shirahama, Shimoda, Shizuoka, 451-0012, Japan.
8
National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bellary Road, Bangalore, 560065, Karnataka, India.
9
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648, Japan.
10
East Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Institute of Fisheries Science, 1194, Haean-ro, Yeongok-myeon, Gangneung, Gangwon, 25435, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The spawning behavior of a Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) is described based on up-close observation of a captive female. The squid was first transferred from a 10-ton tank to a polystyrene plastic box containing 45 liters of seawater. About one hour later, the mantle-contraction rate increased rapidly, followed by a brief convulsion of the mantle and arms and a whitening of the body. The mantle contractions become shallow and rapid, and several seconds later, semitransparent jelly presumably from the nidamental glands emerged from the funnel and passed between the ventral pair of arms. Approximately 90 seconds after the egg mass first emerged, the female began ejecting oocytes through the funnel into the egg mass using rapid, powerful mantle contractions. Soon after the oocytes were ejected, translucent strands (presumably sperm) emanated from the buccal membrane. The female continued to eject oocytes for approximately two minutes, after which the mantle convulsed, and the mantle-contraction rate decreased slowly for about one minute until the contractions stopped. The squid died soon afterwards.

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