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Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 23;9(1):19679. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56298-x.

Retinopathy of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia are Independent Antecedents of Cortical Maturational Abnormalities in Very Preterm Infants.

Author information

1
Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
3
Divison of Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
4
Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Nehal.Parikh@cchmc.org.
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Nehal.Parikh@cchmc.org.
6
Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA. Nehal.Parikh@cchmc.org.

Abstract

Very preterm (VPT) infants are at high-risk for neurodevelopmental impairments, however there are few validated biomarkers at term-equivalent age that accurately measure abnormal brain development and predict future impairments. Our objectives were to quantify and contrast cortical features between full-term and VPT infants at term and to associate two key antecedent risk factors, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with cortical maturational changes in VPT infants. We prospectively enrolled a population-based cohort of 110 VPT infants (gestational age ≤31 weeks) and 51 healthy full-term infants (gestational age 38-42 weeks). Structural brain MRI was performed at term. 94 VPT infants and 46 full-term infants with high-quality T2-weighted MRI were analyzed. As compared to full-term infants, VPT infants exhibited significant global cortical maturational abnormalities, including reduced surface area (-5.9%) and gyrification (-6.7%) and increased curvature (5.9%). In multivariable regression controlled for important covariates, BPD was significantly negatively correlated with lobar and global cortical surface area and ROP was significantly negatively correlated with lobar and global sulcal depth in VPT infants. Our cohort of VPT infants exhibited widespread cortical maturation abnormalities by term-equivalent age that were in part anteceded by two of the most potent neonatal diseases, BPD and ROP.

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