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Biol Res Nurs. 2019 Dec 23:1099800419894641. doi: 10.1177/1099800419894641. [Epub ahead of print]

Positive Association Between Serum Levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Depression/Anxiety in Female, but Not Male, Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Author information

1
School of Nursing, Shandong University, People's Republic of China.
2
School of Health Care Management, Shandong University, People's Republic of China.
3
School of Public Health, Shandong University, People's Republic of China.
4
Nursing Department, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Shandong, China.
5
Endocrinology Department, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Shandong, China.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have increased risk of depression and anxiety. Evidence suggests that a heightened inflammatory state may contribute to this association. Females experience more depression and higher inflammation levels than males. This study compared associations of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels with symptoms of depression and anxiety between men and women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

METHOD:

Cross-sectional data including demographic and disease characteristics, symptoms of depression and anxiety, clinical data, and laboratory values were collected from 392 patients with T2DM recruited from a general hospital in Shandong Province, China. We evaluated associations between serum hs-CRP level and symptoms of depression and anxiety in males and females separately using multiple linear regressions and χ2 tests for trend.

RESULTS:

Sex moderated the association between serum hs-CRP level and symptoms of depression (B = .112 [SE = 0.049]; p = .022) and anxiety (B = .137 [SE = 0.053]; p = .011). Among females, hs-CRP level was positively associated with depression (B = .034, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [.006, .061]; p = .016, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted p = .020) and anxiety (B = .041, 95% CI [.011, .071], p = .007, FDR-adjusted p = .007). Positive trends indicated a higher prevalence of clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety in higher serum hs-CRP categories in females. No associations were found in males.

CONCLUSION:

Findings demonstrate that associations between serum hs-CRP level and symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with T2D are sex-specific, with only females demonstrating a significant positive association.

KEYWORDS:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus; anxiety; depression; hs-CRP; inflammation; sex specific

PMID:
31867989
DOI:
10.1177/1099800419894641

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