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J Educ Health Promot. 2019 Nov 29;8:216. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_156_19. eCollection 2019.

Challenges of health promotion and education strategies to prevent cervical cancer in India: A systematic review.

Author information

1
Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
2
Institute for Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
3
Research Triangle Institute Global India Private Limited (RTI International), New Delhi, 100 037, India.
4
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Lyon CEDEX 08, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although there is a reduction in cervical cancer incidence over the years, it keeps the second position of the most common cancers among females in India. The aim of this review is to understand the challenges of health promotion and education strategies to prevent cervical cancer in India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This review is based on 78 studies published during 1993-2017 on the topics of awareness, attitude, and acceptance toward cervical cancer, screening, and human papilloma virus vaccination among Indians. The extracted information was summarized according to different populations such as people from different social and community groups, women and men attended clinics, students (nursing/medical/nonmedical), health-care providers (doctors, nurses, and other health workers), migrated Indians, and cervical cancer patients.

RESULTS:

The awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention was very poor among women from different communities and the majority had a negative attitude toward screening and vaccination in general. The health professionals and medical students were more aware of cervical cancer and its prevention compared to the general population. Majority of students irrespective of medical or nonmedical background had a positive attitude toward vaccination. Only a small proportion of women in the general population were ever screened.

CONCLUSIONS:

Observations from this review indicate immediate attention of the public health authority to take appropriate actions to educate and motivate general population toward cervical cancer prevention and to improve the facilities to incorporate the much needed preventive and early detection interventions in India.

KEYWORDS:

Cervical cancer; India; prevention and control

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