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J Educ Health Promot. 2019 Sep 30;8:169. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_78_19. eCollection 2019.

Predictive factors for preventing hookah smoking and health promotion among young people based on the protection motivation theory.

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Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Occupational Environmental Research Center, Rafsanjan Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Diabetes Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Neurology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.



Smoking hookahs is one of the most preventable risk factors for non communicable diseases. It is also considered as the gateway to youth addiction. Planning and training to prevent this health problem is considered an important priority. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors for preventing hookah smoking (PHS) in the youth of Sirjan city, based on the protection motivation theory (PMT).


This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2018, and participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire which was valid and reliable and was designed based on the PMT constructs. This questionnaire was completed by 280 young people in Sirjan, Iran. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and linear regression.


Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the structures of the PMT, except for the response cost structure. The strongest correlation was between protection motivation and self-efficacy (r = 0.502) and fear (r = 0.470). The structures of the PMT predicted 36.5% of PHS, and fear (β =0.27) was the strongest predictor of PHS.


The results of this study show that the constructs of the PMT can partially predict PHS. This theory can be used as a tool for designing and implementing educational interventions to prevent hookah smoking among the youth.


Hookah; predicting factor; protection motivation theory; youth

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