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Genes (Basel). 2019 Dec 18;11(1). pii: E3. doi: 10.3390/genes11010003.

Functionally Annotating Regulatory Elements in the Equine Genome Using Histone Mark ChIP-Seq.

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Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Epigenetics Services Team, Diagenode, Liège 4102, Belgium.
Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.
Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA.


One of the primary aims of the Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes (FAANG) initiative is to characterize tissue-specific regulation within animal genomes. To this end, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to map four histone modifications (H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3) in eight prioritized tissues collected as part of the FAANG equine biobank from two thoroughbred mares. Data were generated according to optimized experimental parameters developed during quality control testing. To ensure that we obtained sufficient ChIP and successful peak-calling, data and peak-calls were assessed using six quality metrics, replicate comparisons, and site-specific evaluations. Tissue specificity was explored by identifying binding motifs within unique active regions, and motifs were further characterized by gene ontology (GO) and protein-protein interaction analyses. The histone marks identified in this study represent some of the first resources for tissue-specific regulation within the equine genome. As such, these publicly available annotation data can be used to advance equine studies investigating health, performance, reproduction, and other traits of economic interest in the horse.


FAANG; H3K27ac; H3K27me3; H3K4me1; H3K4me3; annotation; epigenetics; genome regulation; horse; tissue-specific

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