Send to

Choose Destination
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2019 Dec 18;7(1). pii: E1. doi: 10.3390/jcdd7010001.

Scar Formation with Decreased Cardiac Function Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in 1 Month Old Swine.

Author information

Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Heart Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.


Studies in mice show a brief neonatal period of cardiac regeneration with minimal scar formation, but less is known about reparative mechanisms in large mammals. A transient cardiac injury approach (ischemia/reperfusion, IR) was used in weaned postnatal day (P)30 pigs to assess regenerative repair in young large mammals at a stage when cardiomyocyte (CM) mitotic activity is still detected. Female and male P30 pigs were subjected to cardiac ischemia (1 h) by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion, or to a sham operation. Following IR, myocardial damage occurred, with cardiac ejection fraction significantly decreased 2 h post-ischemia. No improvement or worsening of cardiac function to the 4 week study end-point was observed. Histology demonstrated CM cell cycling, detectable by phospho-histone H3 staining, at 2 months of age in multinucleated CMs in both sham-operated and IR pigs. Inflammation and regional scar formation in the epicardial region proximal to injury were observed 4 weeks post-IR. Thus, pigs subjected to cardiac IR at P30 show myocardial damage with a prolonged decrease in cardiac function, formation of a regional scar, and increased inflammation, but do not regenerate myocardium even in the presence of CM mitotic activity.


cardiac function; cardiomyocyte; cell cycling; ischemia/reperfusion injury; swine

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center