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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020 Jan;68(1):130-133. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_148_19.

Choroidal hyper-reflective foci and vascularity in retinal dystrophy.

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Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreo-Retinal Diseases, Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.



To investigate choroidal hyper-reflective foci (HRF) in subjects with retinal dystrophy [Stargardt's disease (SGD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP)] and their association with demographics, visual acuity, choroidal thickness (CT), and choroidal vascularity index (CVI).


Single center retrospective study of subjects with previously diagnosed SGD or RP. Swept-source optical coherence tomography images were analyzed for the presence of choroidal HRFs and CVI using previously validated automated algorithm. A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the number of HRF and various baseline parameters including age, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and other optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters (CT, choroidal area, and CVI) were evaluated in these subjects.


This study included 46 eyes (23 subjects) and 55 eyes (28 subjects) with previously diagnosed RP and SGD, respectively. In the RP group, the mean number of HRFs was 247.9 ± 57.1 and mean CVI was 0.56 ± 0.04. In SGD group, mean HRF was 192.5 ± 44.3 and mean CVI was 0.41 ± 0.04. Mean HRF was significantly greater in the RP group (0.02), however, the mean CVI was not statistically different. In RP, mean HRF were correlated only with CVI (r = 0.49; P = 0.001), however, in SGD, it correlated with only choroidal area (r = 0.27; P = 0.04).


Choroidal HRF were present in both RP and SGD subjects with more HRFs in those with RP. These HRFs were associated with alteration in choroidal vascularity, which further adds into the pathogenesis of these diseases.


Choroidal vascularity index; hyper-reflective foci; retinal dystrophy

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