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J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 19. pii: /j/jbcpp.ahead-of-print/jbcpp-2019-0079/jbcpp-2019-0079.xml. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0079. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of cytogenotoxic potential of Morinda lucida leaf extract on Swiss albino male mice using two bioassays.

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Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Taiwan Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.



Utilization of Morinda lucida for the treatment of ailments such as malaria, diarrhea, infertility in women, and dysentery in many countries including Nigeria is on increase due to its efficiency, availability, and affordability. However, its cytogenotoxicity has not been elucidated. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and possible genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of M. lucida leaf extract in Swiss albino male mice using bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays.


Plant materials was collected, thoroughly washed, and air-dried at room temperature prior to maceration. The extract was assessed for the presence of the phytochemical compounds. Swiss albino male mice (Mus musculus) (n=4) were treated with different concentrations of this extract (400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg, and 1200 mg/kg) while distilled water was used as negative control.


Phytochemical analysis revealed that the extract contains saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and tannins. We observed micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) of 3.20%, 1.10%, and 1.95% at different concentrations of 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg, and 1200 mg/kg respectively in the treated animals. The result showed no significant increase in the frequency of abnormalities (p < 0.05) when compared to the negative control; however, in separate analysis of mono-micronucleated PCE and mono-micronucleated NCE per group, a significant increase at 400 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg concentrations was observed. The sperm anomalies decreased with increase in concentration.


This study recommends 800 mg/kg concentration of the plant extract; however, it should be further and properly investigated as it contains some pharmaceutical components that can be used for pharmacological purposes.


Morinda lucida ; bone marrow micronucleus; cytogenotoxicity; leaf extract; phytochemical; sperm morphology


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