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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Oct-Dec;11(4):153-159. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_149_18. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Typhoidal Salmonella in Ahmedabad in an Era of Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Systems.

Author information

Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Department of Microbiology, B. J. Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Department of Microbiology, Smt NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Department of Microbiology, Supratech Micropath Laboratory and Research Institute Private Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Health Department, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.



India possibly carries the highest burden of antimicrobial resistant typhoidal salmonellae in the world. We report on the health-care ecosystem that produces data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) testing and the resistance patterns of typhoidal Salmonella isolates in the city of Ahmedabad.

Materials and Methods:

Through municipality records and internet searches, we identified 1696 private and 83 public laboratories in the city; 4 medical colleges, 4 health-care institution attached laboratories, and 4 corporate laboratories (CLs) were performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST), but only 2 medical colleges and 1 CL shared their data with us. There was considerable variation in culturing and sensitivity testing methodology across laboratories.


Out of 51,260 blood cultures, Salmonella isolates were detected in only 146 (0.28%). AST was conducted on 124 isolates, of which 67 (54%) were found resistant. Multidrug resistance was absent. Concurrent resistance to more than one antibiotic was very high, 88%, among the 67 resistant isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance varied widely between the private and public sector laboratories. Notably, isolates from the private sector laboratory showed complete resistance to azithromycin.


High resistance to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin observed in Ahmedabad may be due to the increased use of these two antibiotics in the public and private sectors, respectively. The need of the hour is to identify a representative sample of laboratories from both the public and the private sectors and encourage them to participate in the national AMR surveillance network.


Ahmedabad; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella; antimicrobial-resistance surveillance; regional antimicrobial-resistant pattern; typhoidal Salmonella

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