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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Oct-Dec;11(4):135-139. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_12_19. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Costing of Febrile Illness among Under Five Children, A Study in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Odisha, India.

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Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Department of Paediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.



The objective of this study was to determine the cost of treatment, both direct and indirect costs, of febrile illness among under-five children in Odisha, India.


This was a cross-sectional study of thirty under-five children with febrile illness reporting to the pediatric outpatient (OP) department and thirty more under-five children admitted to the pediatric ward who were included in the study during January-April 2018. The parents/caretakers of the ailing children were interviewed using the WHO questionnaire contextualized to the local situation. Both direct (medicine, diagnostics, registration/doctor's fees, bed charges, and cost of personal medical appliances) and indirect (transportation, food, loss of income, and lodging) costs of febrile illness and pre-, during, and posthospital visit cost were estimated.


The median direct and indirect costs for OP cases were Rs. 1201.00 and Rs. 1375.00, respectively. For the hospitalization (indoor patients), direct and indirect costs were Rs. 7015.00 and Rs. 5190.00, respectively. People also spent money in pre-, during, and posthospital visits for the same episode of febrile illness. Only four OP cases had some kind of medical insurance.


High expenditure on both OP and indoor patients calls for appropriate policy for provision of financial protection while seeking health-care services. Health facilities should be tuned to do cost analysis enabling comparison among health facilities.


Direct cost; febrile illness; health-care expenditure; indirect cost

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