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Nutrients. 2019 Dec 13;11(12). pii: E3050. doi: 10.3390/nu11123050.

Dietary and Lifestyle Patterns in the Spanish Pediatric Population (One to <10 Years Old): Design, Protocol, and Methodology of the EsNuPI Study.

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Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), 18016 Armilla, Granada, Spain.
CIBERESP, Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain.
Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, 18004 Granada, Spain.
Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain.
Department of Physiology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology " José Mataix", Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, 18100 Granada, Spain.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Navarra Clinic, 28027 Madrid, Spain.
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II University of Granada, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.


The interest in a healthy diet and lifestyle during the early stages of life increased, pointing out its role in the development of noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout adult life. Dietary habits and dietary patterns begin to be established in early childhood and persist during adulthood. Therefore, the EsNuPI ("Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population") study aims to depict the dietary patterns, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Spanish children aged from one to <10 years old. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study recruited a total of 1514 children from Spanish cities with >50,000 inhabitants, stratified by Nielsen areas. Participants were involved in one face-to-face survey, followed by a telephone survey after at least one week. Information about dietary intake and habits was obtained using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and two 24-h dietary recalls. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were registered using a specific questionnaire based on a seven-day record. Data were processed and stratified by categorical variables to be statistically analyzed in order to meet the study objectives. This study is the first of its kind in a Spanish reference population of this age range and the first to evaluate whether the consumption of adapted milk formulas and dairy products is associated with healthier dietary patterns and better diet quality and lifestyles in this group.


EsNuPI study; Spanish children; dairy products; dietary habits; feeding behaviors; food intake; infant formula; pediatrics; physical activity; sedentary behaviors

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Conflict of interest statement

The funding sponsor had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of the data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results. The authors declare no conflicts of interest, with the exception of Federico Lara who is a member of the IPN.

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