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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2020 Feb;220:109988. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.109988. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Biomarkers of cell-mediated immunity to bovine tuberculosis.

Author information

1
National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Ames, Iowa, USA. Electronic address: mitchell.palmer@usda.gov.
2
National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Ames, Iowa, USA.
3
TB Immunology and Vaccinology, Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surry UK.
4
National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Ames, Iowa, USA; Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Abstract

Whole blood based assays, particularly interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs), are used for the diagnosis of both bovine and human tuberculosis (TB). The aim of the current study was to evaluate a panel of cytokines and chemokines for potential use as diagnostic readouts indicative of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in cattle. A gene expression assay was used to determine the kinetics of the response to M. bovis purified protein derivative and a fusion protein consisting of ESAT-6, CFP10, and Rv3615c upon aerosol infection with ∼104 cfu of M. bovis. The panel of biomarkers included: IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-22, IL-21 and IL-13. Protein levels of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were determined by ELISA. Findings suggest that CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-21, IL-13, and several acute phase cytokines may be worth pursuing as diagnostic biomarkers of M. bovis infection in cattle.

KEYWORDS:

Chemokines; Cytokines; Mycobacterium bovis; Tuberculosis; Whole blood rtPCR

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Competing Interest The Authors declare no conflict of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Mention of tradenames or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture.

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