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Curr Drug Deliv. 2019 Dec 16. doi: 10.2174/1567201817666191217093936. [Epub ahead of print]

Microneedle-Assisted Percutaneous Transport of Magnesium Sulfate.

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College of Pharmacy Touro University, Mare Island-Vallejo California, CA 94592. United States.



In vitro diffusion experiments were performed to assess the permeation of magnesium sulfate across pig skin.


The mean thickness of the dermatomed porcine skin was 648 ± 12 µm. Magnesium concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Transdermal flux of magnesium sulfate across MN-treated and untreated porcine skin was obtained from the slope of the steady-state linear portion of cumulative amount versus time curve.


Statistical analysis of the results was done with Student's t-test. The transdermal flux of magnesium sulfate across microneedle-treated porcine skin was 134.19 ± 2.4 µg/cm2/h, and transdermal flux across untreated porcine skin was 4.64 ± 0.05 µg/cm2/h. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the microchannels created by a solid microneedle roller (500 µm).


From our confocal microscopy studies, it was evident that the 500 µm long microneedles disrupted the stratum corneum and created microchannels measuring 191 ± 37 µm. The increase in transdermal flux across the microneedle-treated skin was statistically significant compared to that of controls, i.e., without the application of microneedles. With the application of microneedles, the transdermal flux of magnesium permeated over 12 h was approximately 33-fold higher in comparison to passive diffusion across an intact stratum corneum.


Confocal Microscopy; Magnesium; Microchannels; Microneedle Roller; Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy; Transdermal Flux

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