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Vaccine. 2019 Dec 9. pii: S0264-410X(19)31629-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.11.075. [Epub ahead of print]

A measles outbreak from an index case with immunologically confirmed secondary vaccine failure.

Author information

1
Osaka Institute of Public Health, Morinomiya Center, 1-3-69, Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan. Electronic address: kurata@iph.osaka.jp.
2
Osaka Institute of Public Health, Morinomiya Center, 1-3-69, Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan. Electronic address: Kanbayashi@iph.osaka.jp.
3
Osaka Institute of Public Health, Tennoji Center, 8-34, Tojo-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka 543-0026, Japan. Electronic address: egawak@iph.osaka.jp.
4
Osaka Prefectural Government Department of Health and Medical Care, 2, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-8570, Japan. Electronic address: KinoshitaMas@mbox.pref.osaka.lg.jp.
5
Osaka City Health Center, Osaka City Public Health Bureau, 1-2-7-1000, Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-0051, Japan. Electronic address: h-yoshida@city.osaka.lg.jp.
6
Osaka Prefectural Government Neyagawa Health Center, Osaka, 28-3, Yasaka-cho, Neyagawa-City, Osaka, 572-0838, Japan. Electronic address: miyazono.masaya@city.neyagawa.osaka.jp.
7
Osaka Institute of Public Health, Morinomiya Center, 1-3-69, Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan. Electronic address: motomura@iph.osaka.jp.

Abstract

During the elimination stage of measles, the development of such disease in individuals who received measles-containing vaccine (MCV) is a concern from an epidemiological standpoint. A few cases in which measles was transmitted from a patient who received two doses of MCV have been reported. However, whether such transmissions were caused by primary vaccine failure (PVF) or secondary vaccine failure (SVF) remains unclear. All patients suspected of measles in Osaka Prefecture between November and December 2018 were enrolled. Data about age, gender, immunization record, and clinical signs were obtained. Laboratory examinations were performed, which included virus isolation in tissue culture, a nucleic acid test based on virus-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction and humoral responses to the measles virus measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, avidity of IgG, and neutralizing antibody concentration. The measles outbreak comprised 10 laboratory confirmed cases, including three secondary and six tertiary patients. Among them, three secondary patients were unvaccinated. The index case had received two MCV doses, and the six tertiary patients were vaccinated. Both the index and tertiary patients had high specific IgG concentration with high avidity. In particular, the index patient had a markedly high neutralization antibody concentration of 425,590 mIU/mL, which indicated immunological SVF. This study first reported about measles transmission from an individual with SVF who received two vaccination doses. To prevent measles transmission and outbreak particularly in countries where measles was almost eliminated, patients with SVF for measles should be cautiously monitored.

KEYWORDS:

Measles outbreak; Vaccination; Vaccine failure

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