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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2019;11(4):272-279. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2019.45. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

The association of glycemic index and glycemic load with elevated blood pressure in Iranian women.

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Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.


Introduction: Dietary intake is a risk factor related to elevated blood pressure (EBP). Few studies have investigated an association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the EBP. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of dietary GI and GL with the EBP among a group of healthy women. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 306 healthy women. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice by a mercury sphygmomanometer from the right arm. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed according to the standard protocols. Results: Before controlling for potential confounders, no significant association was seen between dietary GI/GL and SBP/DBP. Also after controlling for potential confounders, the associations did not change between dietary GI and SBP (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.42-2.17, P = 0.87), between GI and DBP (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.35-1.45, P = 0.37), as well as between GL and SBP (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.43-2.49, P = 1.00) and between GL and DBP (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.56-2.00, P = 0.61). In a stratified analysis by obesity and overweight, differences between tertiles of GI were not significant (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.42-1.31, P = 0.31), even after adjustment for the potential confounders (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 0.70-3.40, P = 0.26). Conclusion: This study did not show a significant association between dietary GI/GL and the risk of high SBP/DBP. In addition, no significant association was found between dietary GI/GL and odds of overweight or obesity in adult women.


Elevated Blood Pressure; Glycemic Index; Glycemic Load; Obesity

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