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Ann Afr Med. 2019 Oct-Dec;18(4):191-195. doi: 10.4103/aam.aam_18_19.

Prevalence and pattern of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders among hemodialysis patients in kano, northwest nigeria.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Department of Internal Medicine, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.
Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Osun, Nigeria.


in English, French


Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are among the important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) including end-stage renal disease. In addition to the higher rate of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, MBD is also a cause of significant morbidity in CKD patients.

Materials and Methods:

This is a cross-sectional study of all consenting patients on hemodialysis at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, between December 2011 and June 2012. With the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, the demographic profile and clinical features of the patients were obtained. After a general physical examination, blood sample was taken for the determination of calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy (25[OH]) Vitamin D3, packed cell volume, serum creatinine, and potassium.


Forty-eight patients on maintenance hemodialysis were recruited for the study, 39 (81.3%) were male and 9 (18.8%) were female. The age range was 40-59 years, with a mean of 45.96 ± 13.7 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the predominant cause of CKD (25%). Hyperphosphatemia was noted in 19 (39.5%) of the patients, whereas 22 (46%) had hypocalcemia. In 26 (54.1%) of the patients, the calcium-phosphate product was >4.55 mmol2/L2. We found that 58% of the patients had CKD-MBD, of which 15 (31%) had secondary hyperparathyroidism, whereas 13 (27%) had features suggestive of adynamic bone disease. None of the patient had normal serum 25(OH) Vitamin D3(mean: 43.79 ± 21 ng/ml).


CKD-MBD is common among patients on hemodialysis in our center. Screening for CKD-MBD and appropriate use of phosphate binder and Vitamin D when indicated are highly recommended.


Biochemical markers; Northwest Nigeria; chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders; maintenance hemodialysis

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