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Ann Afr Med. 2019 Oct-Dec;18(4):185-190. doi: 10.4103/aam.aam_7_19.

Gross motor developmental delay in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children under 2 years of age.

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1
Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Abstract

in English, French

Background:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has significant effects on child development. We report the outcome of gross motor developmental assessment in HIV-infected children <2 years compared with that of uninfected children.

Materials and Methods:

Every child <2 years of age presenting for the first time to the pediatric outpatient department of the hospital over 3 months was studied. Each child had a physical examination with gross motor milestone assessment, as well as initial double rapid HIV antibody tests with confirmatory tests for those with positive or discordant results. Children with evidence of motor delay were booked for reassessment after 1 month. The milestone performance criteria of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study of the World Health Organization were used as a standard.

Results:

One hundred and eight children were studied. Male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Fourteen children (13.0%) were HIV infected. Nine children (8.3%) had delayed development of gross motor milestones, of which five were HIV infected and four were uninfected (P = 0.001). Each motor milestone was attained at a significantly later mean age by the HIV-infected children when compared to the uninfected. Evidence of delay in gross motor milestones was apparent by the first 6 months of life.

Conclusions:

A tendency to poorer motor development is apparent in young children infected by HIV and can manifest as early as the first 6 months of life. Routine HIV screening as well as early developmental assessment of all children should be encouraged.

KEYWORDS:

Gross motor milestones delay; human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS; pediatrics

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