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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988 Nov;15(5):1209-18.

Thermal distribution studies of helical coil microwave antennas for interstitial hyperthermia.

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Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143.


An implantable 915 MHz helical coil antenna was developed for improved localization and control of interstitial microwave hyperthermia. The radiating element consisted of a fine wire coil wound back over the inner conductor of a miniature semi-rigid coaxial cable in place of the terminal portion of outer conductor. The power deposition profiles from single helical coil antennas were studied both in homogeneous phantom and in muscle tissue in vivo and compared to those of single half-wavelength linear dipole antennas. The effects of variable coil length, turn density, and antenna insertion depth in tissue were characterized. The helical coil antennas produced a well-localized heating pattern with a sharp falloff of temperature in both directions axially from the coil element. One of the best heating patterns was obtained with a 35 turn, 35 mm long helical coil element which was separated from the antenna feedline outer conductor by a 1 mm gap (HCS-35(1)/36). This antenna showed a marked shift of the effectively heated volume toward the antenna tip and essentially no dependence of the heating pattern on insertion depth. In contrast, the axial power deposition profiles of dipole antennas were strongly affected by insertion depth and exhibited an inadequately heated area at the antenna tip even with 1/2-3/4 wavelength insertion. Thermal distribution studies showed that the single helical coil microwave antenna provided more predictable, well-localized heating of deep-seated tissues, with minimal requirement for over-implanting of the treatment volume.

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