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J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Jan 22. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06075. [Epub ahead of print]

Deamidation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gliadins Alter Their Processing by Dendritic Cells in Vitro.

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INRA , UR1268 BIA, rue de la Géraudière , F-44316 Nantes , France.
IRAS, Immunotoxicology Group , Utrecht University , 3584 CM Utrecht , The Netherlands.


Gliadins are major wheat allergens. Their treatment by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis has been shown to modify their allergenic potential. As the interaction of food proteins with dendritic cells (DCs) is a key event in allergic sensitization, we wished to investigate whether deamidation and enzymatic hydrolysis influence gliadin processing by DC and to examine the capacity of gliadins to activate DCs. We compared the uptake and degradation of native and modified gliadins by DCs using mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. We also analyzed the effects of these interactions on the phenotypes of DCs and T helper (Th) lymphocytes. Modifying gliadins induced a change in physicochemical properties (molecular weight, hydrophobicity, and sequence) and also in the peptide size. These alterations in turn led to increased uptake and intracellular degradation of the proteins by DCs. Native gliadins (NGs) (100 μg/mL), but not modified gliadins, increased the frequency of DC expressing CD80 (15.41 ± 2.36% vs 6.81 ± 1.10%, p < 0.001), CCR7 (28.53 ± 8.17% vs 17.88 ± 2.53%, p < 0.001), CXCR4 (70.14 ± 4.63% vs 42.82 ± 1.96%, p < 0.001), and CCR7-dependent migration (2.46 ± 1.45 vs 1.00 ± 0.22, p < 0.01) compared with NGs. This was accompanied by Th lymphocyte activation (30.37 ± 3.87% vs 21.53 ± 3.14%, p < 0.1) and proliferation (16.39 ± 3.97% vs 9.31 ± 2.80%, p > 0.1). Moreover, hydrolysis decreases the peptide size and induces an increase in gliadin uptake and degradation. Deamidation and extensive enzymatic hydrolysis of gliadins modify their interaction with DCs, leading to alteration of their immunostimulatory capacity. These findings demonstrate the strong relationship between the biochemical characteristics of proteins and immune cell interactions.


allergy; deamidation; dendritic cells; gliadins; hydrolysis


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