Send to

Choose Destination
Biomolecules. 2019 Dec 2;9(12). pii: E816. doi: 10.3390/biom9120816.

The Kiwifruit Allergen Act d 1 Activates NF-κB Signaling and Affects mRNA Expression of TJ Proteins and Innate Pro-Allergenic Cytokines.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Impairment of the intestinal barrier is one of the key events in the initiation of the sensitization process in food allergy. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of kiwifruit allergen Act d 1 on intestinal permeability and tight junction protein (TJP) gene expression in vivo and to explore its potential to activate the NF-ĸB signaling pathway and to regulate expression of epithelial pro-allergenic cytokines. Influences of Act d 1 on TJP gene expression and pro-allergenic cytokines in the mouse intestine was analyzed by qPCR upon allergen administration by oral gavage. The effect on the in vivo intestinal permeability was assessed in ELISA by measuring the translocation of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) into circulation. The capacity of Act d 1 to activate the NF-ĸB pathway was tested in HEK293 cells by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Administration of Actinidin (Act d 1) increased intestinal permeability to the BLG. This was accompanied by changes in gene expression of TJP mRNA and pro-allergenic cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) compared to the control. Act d 1 reduced TEER of the HEK293 monolayer, was positive in an NF-ĸB-reporter HEK293 cell assay, and induced secretion of TSLP. These findings shed more light on the molecular events in the sensitization process of kiwifruit but possibly also of other protease food allergens.


NF-ĸB; actinidin; epithelial cell-derived cytokines; food allergy; tight junction proteins

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center