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Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019 Dec 5;7(1). pii: e643. doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000643. Print 2020 Jan.

Neurologic complications of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

Author information

1
From the Department of Neurology (P.R., G.M., C.S., C.Z., G.D., A.K.-L., C.G.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, CH; Laboratory of Microbiology EOLAB (E.P., G.M.), Bellinzona, CH; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, USI (G.M., C.Z., A.K.-L., C.G.), Lugano, CH; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lausanne University Hospital (M.F., D.M.), Lausanne, CH; Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital (R.S.), Lausanne, CH; Laboratory of Immunology, Lausanne University Hospital (V.A.), CH; Department of Hepatology, Hospital of Bellinzona (F.B.), CH; Division of Infectious Diseases (E.B.), Hospital of Lugano, CH; Epatocentro Ticino (B.T.B.-P., A.C.), Lugano, CH; Queens Park (H.R.D.), London, UK; Synlab Ticino (C.Z.), Bioggio, CH; and Unilabs Ticino (B.M.), Lugano, CH. pao.ripe@hotmail.it.
2
From the Department of Neurology (P.R., G.M., C.S., C.Z., G.D., A.K.-L., C.G.), Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, CH; Laboratory of Microbiology EOLAB (E.P., G.M.), Bellinzona, CH; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, USI (G.M., C.Z., A.K.-L., C.G.), Lugano, CH; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lausanne University Hospital (M.F., D.M.), Lausanne, CH; Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital (R.S.), Lausanne, CH; Laboratory of Immunology, Lausanne University Hospital (V.A.), CH; Department of Hepatology, Hospital of Bellinzona (F.B.), CH; Division of Infectious Diseases (E.B.), Hospital of Lugano, CH; Epatocentro Ticino (B.T.B.-P., A.C.), Lugano, CH; Queens Park (H.R.D.), London, UK; Synlab Ticino (C.Z.), Bioggio, CH; and Unilabs Ticino (B.M.), Lugano, CH.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the prevalence and clinical features of neurologic involvement in patients with acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Southern Switzerland.

METHODS:

Among 1,940 consecutive patients investigated for acute hepatitis E, we identified 141 cases of acute of HEV infection (anti-HEV immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G both reactive and/or HEV RNA positive) between June 2014 and September 2017. Neurologic cases were followed up for 6 months. We compared patients with and without neurologic symptoms.

RESULTS:

Neurologic symptoms occurred in 43 acute HEV cases (30.4%) and consisted of neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, n = 15, 10.6%) and myalgia (n = 28, 19.8%). All NA cases were immunocompetent. Men had higher odds (OR = 5.2, CI 1.12-24.0, p = 0.03) of developing NA after infection with HEV, and in 3 couples simultaneously infected with HEV, only men developed NA. Bilateral involvement of NA was predominant (2:1) and occurred only in men. Seven NA cases were viremic (all genotype 3), but HEV was undetectable in their CSF. In the acute phase of NA, 9 patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and 4 with prednisone, reporting no side effects and improvement in pain and strength. Myalgia occurred both without (n = 16) or with (n = 12) concomitant elevated serum creatinine kinase. Seven cases with myalgia in the shoulder girdle did not have muscle weakness ("forme fruste" of NA).

CONCLUSIONS:

Neurologic symptoms occurred in one-third of acute HEV infections and consisted of NA and myalgia. NA seems to occur more frequently in men infected by HEV and has a predominant (but not exclusive) bilateral involvement.

PMID:
31806684
DOI:
10.1212/NXI.0000000000000643
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