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J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2019 Oct-Dec;7(4):153-164. doi: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_21_19. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Effect of Suramin on Renal Proximal Tubular Cells Damage Induced by Cisplatin in Rats (Histological and Immunohistochemical Study).

Author information

1
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
2
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Background:

Renal toxicity is the most common complication of cispaltin therapy that has broad-spectrum antitumor activity against a variety of human solid tumor. Suramin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved old drug is a polysulfonated compound of napthylurea originally designed to treat trypanosomiasis.

Aim:

The current work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of different doses of suramin against cisplatin-induced renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) damage.

Material and Methods:

Fifty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups. Group I served as a control, group II received suramin alone (10 mg/kg). Groups III, IV and V were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alone or combined with low dosage suramin (5 mg/kg) or high dosage suramin (10 mg/kg) once intravenously respectively.

Results:

Compared with control rats, cisplatin administration caused proximal tubules damage, RPTCs vacuolation with pyknotic nuclei, loss of brush border and widespread caspase-3 immunostaining. Cisplatin-induced RPTCs toxicity was further confirmed morphometrically (a significantly decreased proximal tubular epithelium height and increased mean number of caspase-3-immunopositive cells). These changes were accompanied by biochemical alteration manifested as a significant increase of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Simultaneous administration of high-dose but not low-dose suramin to the cisplatin-treated rats improved the deleterious morphological and morphometrical effects on RPTCs and restored the aforementioned biochemical parameters to control values.

Conclusion:

In conclusion suramin in a dose dependant manner protects RPTCs from damage induced by cisplatin.

KEYWORDS:

Cisplatin renal toxicity; histopathology; proximal tubules; suramin

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