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Health Place. 2019 Nov;60:102188. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102188. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Associations between neighborhood built environment and cognition vary by apolipoprotein E genotype: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Author information

1
School of Urban and Regional Planning, Institute for Human Health and Disease Intervention, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd, SO-284H, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA. Electronic address: lbesser@fau.edu.
2
Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd, ME-104, First Floor, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA. Electronic address: galvinj@health.fau.edu.
3
Department of City and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Design, Office 313B, Wurster Hall #1820, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1820, USA. Electronic address: danrod@berkeley.edu.
4
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 10945 Le Conte Avenue, Suite 2339 (PVUB Uberroth Building), Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. Electronic address: TSeeman@mednet.ucla.edu.
5
National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 4311 11th Avenue NE, Suite 300, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA. Electronic address: kukull@uw.edu.
6
Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine & Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 791 Jonestown Road, Winston-Salem, NC, 27103, USA. Electronic address: srapp@wakehealth.edu.
7
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Room 2631, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA. Electronic address: smjenn@umich.edu.

Abstract

We examined whether neighborhood built environment (BE) and cognition associations in older adults vary by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 4091 participants. Neighborhood characteristics included social and walking destination density (SDD, WDD), intersection density, and proportion of land dedicated to retail. Individuals were categorized as APOE ε2 (lower AD risk), APOE ε4 (higher AD risk), or APOE ε3 carriers. Among APOE ε2 carriers, greater proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better global cognition, and greater SDD, WDD, intersection density, and proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better processing speed. These associations were not observed in APOE ε3 or ε4 carriers. APOE ε2 carriers may be more susceptible to the potentially beneficial effects of denser neighborhood BEs on cognition; however, longitudinal studies are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Apolipoprotein E; Built environment; Cognition; Environment; Neighborhood; Older adults

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