Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Nov 21;206:107754. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107754. [Epub ahead of print]

The association between pain clinic laws and prescription opioid exposures: New evidence from multi-state comparisons.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, CA, USA; School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
2
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address: yus001@ucsd.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

States in the US are controlling opioid prescribing to combat the opioid epidemic. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) were widely adopted, whereas less attention was given to pain clinic laws. This study examined the associations of mandatory use of PDMPs and pain clinic laws with prescription opioid exposures.

METHODS:

State-level quarterly prescription opioid exposures reported to the National Poison Data System during 2010-2017 were analyzed. The primary outcome was age-adjusted rates of prescription opioid exposures per 1,000,000 population. The primary policy variables included the implementation of mandatory use of PDMPs alone, the implementation of pain clinic laws alone, and the implementation of both mandatory use of PDMPs and pain clinic laws. Linear regressions were used to examine the associations, controlling for other opioid policies, marijuana policies, socioeconomic factors, state fixed effects, time fixed effects, and state-specific time trends.

RESULTS:

Requiring mandatory use of PDMPs alone was not associated with significant changes in prescription opioid exposures. The implementation of pain clinic laws with or without concurrent mandatory use of PDMPs was associated with 5 fewer prescription opioid exposures per 1,000,000 population or a 9 % reduction compared to the pre-policy period (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed that the reduction associated with pain clinic laws was pronounced in exposures reported by healthcare facilities.

CONCLUSIONS:

This multi-state study provided new evidence that the implementation of pain clinic laws was associated with a significant reduction in prescription opioid exposures. Pain clinic laws may deserve further evaluation and consideration.

KEYWORDS:

Pain clinic laws; Poisoning exposures; Prescription drug monitoring programs; Prescription opioid

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center